Analytics

Analytics on Central Asia are relevant for a young region that is still experiencing a period of its development. The section is a source of information for a wide range of readers interested in socio-political processes, issues of regional security and economic development, as well as foreign policy in the countries of Central Asia.

Post-Summit: Will Central Asia Regain Its Lost Geopolitical Identity?

«The Tashkent meeting, despite the rather positive political rhetoric, raised new questions adding up to those of last year’s meeting in Kazakhstan. The states in the region keep reassuring each other of their commitment to strengthening cooperation, but there is a feeling that the countries themselves do not have a clear vision of such prospects», – notes Yuriy Sarukhanyan, an expert on international relations, a participant of the CABAR.asia School of Analytics from Tashkent. (more…)

Features of Countering Violent Extremism and Terrorism in Kazakhstan

«In Kazakhstan there is no term as “violent extremism” in the conceptual construct, and as a result at the legislative level. Too vague definition of the terms extremism and terrorism significantly complicates the work on prevention and counteraction», – said Anna Gusarova, an expert in international security, director of the Central Asian Institute for Strategic Studies, in her article written specifically for CABAR.asia.

(more…)

What Is the Reason for the Continued Practice of Forced Cotton Picking in Uzbekistan?

«The approved roadmap for the development of Uzbekistan’s agricultural sector raises doubts about the government’s intentions to curtail forced labor in cotton harvest», notes independent researcher Alisher Ilkhamov in his article for CABAR.asia. (more…)

Pros and Cons of the Tajik Strategy Against Extremism and Terrorism

Tajikistan’s strategy to counter extremism and terrorism recognizes the importance of attracting civil society institutions and every citizen, Tajik political analyst Sherali Rizoyon notes in his article written specifically for CABAR.asia.


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Short overview of the article

  • In the 2000s, there was a process of moving away from secular values among young people in Tajikistan; 
  • In 2014-2016 there was an increase in the involvement of citizens in the organization of the Islamic State (IS). Recruitment mainly occurred among labor migrants. Recruiters also used social media;
  • In the same years, a need arose for the development of a comprehensive state policy to counter extremism and terrorism;
  • The National Strategy for Combating Extremism and Terrorism for 2016-2020 adopted by Tajikistan recognizes extremism and terrorism as a complex problem;

Identity crisis: “Soviet” tools no longer work
The country’s experience in the prevention of extremism can be divided into several stages, which reflect the current internal socio-political processes, as well as international trends in the light of the activation of terrorist groups and the actualization of extremism as a negative phenomenon.[1] Today, Tajikistan and other countries of the region have entered the post-radicalization stage, and therefore the problems of extremism and terrorism absorb a new content. In this vein, a media report on the liquidation of the leader of the Islamic State (IS) organization Al-Baghdadi can lead to diametrically opposite consequences. It can be assumed that the same structure will appear on the basis of the IS, but it will already be more stable and organized. The IS phenomenon showed that extremists, speculating on problems in the communities where Muslims live, can relatively easily recruit supporters there.
In this light, the main challenge is to design a policy for the re-socialization and rehabilitation of individuals (as well as members of their families, primarily wives and children who have experience of living in territories controlled by IS and other terrorist organizations). Given this factor, an analysis of the “National Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan on Countering Extremism and Terrorism for 2016-2020”[2] (hereinafter referred to as the “National Strategy-NS”) can show how timely the adoption of this document was, and what additional mechanisms should be developed for the new iteration.
Tajikistan has been among the first states in the post-Soviet space, which faced with a surge of extremist ideology, and it has been the first to develop and adopt a document in the form of a National Strategy. Thus, a brief analysis of the national experience of Tajikistan is of both theoretical and methodological and practical importance.

List of wanted Tajikistanis participating in armed conflicts in Syria and Iraq. Spitamen district of Sughd region, 2017. Photo: Negmatullo Mirsaidov / orien.info

Analysis of the situation on countering and preventing extremism and terrorism (before the adoption of the National Strategy)
An essential element of the radicalization of citizens, primarily youth in the 2000s, is that there was a process of moving away from secular values. This process can be explained by the phenomena associated with the search for identity: more precisely, with the identity crisis that was observed during this period.
The highlight was that the tools developed during the Soviet period and at the dawn of independence which can influence the formation of the youth worldview no longer worked. Existing traditions have less and less influence on the beliefs of young people. This process was accompanied by an external ideological onslaught. Young people who received religious education abroad began to impose the “right” Islam. When existing values ​​were largely discredited, and new ones were not yet formed, an ideological gap arose that was actively filled by adherents of radical organizations, recruiting young people into their ranks.
These processes began in the 2000s in cities where active “Hizb-ut-Tahrir” cells were identified, with the participation, of educated youth from wealthy families. After the 2005s, Salafism gained popularity as a youth subculture. The analysis of media materials and the results of field studies show that in those years, active Salafi cells formed in the cities. At the same time, during the 2000s, in the rural areas, primarily in the north of Tajikistan, the IMU (Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan), Hizb-ut-Tahrir, and others intensified. Already after 2010, recruitment of citizens intensified in both cities and rural areas to Ansarulloh, Dzhundulloh, and etc.
To date, 20 organizations and groups in Tajikistan have been declared terrorist and extremist by decision of the Supreme Court and their activities are banned in the republic.[3] Most of the ban decisions were made in the 2000s.
To understand the characteristics of the growth of extremist ideas, it is important to consider the following points:
Location factor. The first cells of extremist organizations appeared in the early 2000s in cross-border regions. This is, first of all, the north of Tajikistan – the Ferghana Valley, where society is more conservative. The Ferghana Valley itself is located at the junction of three states, where urban centers maintain economic and cultural ties. Therefore, the trends that were observed in the Ferghana Valley essentially influenced the religious environment of all states (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan). Another important influential factor can be called the situation in Afghanistan, where a civil war has taken place for 40 years, and the opposing parties of Islamic persuasion are the active parties.
The factor of religious identity. After the 2000s, the whole process of changing the religious identity of citizens was observed in the country. It was especially pronounced among residents of cities and labor  migrants. During the same period, the process of growth of religious self-awareness among labor migrants, who increasingly practiced Islam different from traditional, began. During this period, there was also a process of alienation from national and “post-Soviet” traditions and customs, the question was raised how much it is acceptable for Muslims to celebrate Navruz, New Year, and etc.   

Trends in radicalization before the adoption of the National Strategy. 
For the first time in the modern history of Tajikistan, a suicide attack took place. The incident happened in Khujand, in September 2010, in front of the building of the Regional Directorate for Combating Organized Crime (RDCOC/ РУБОП) of the Administration of Ministry of Internal Affairs (УМВД) of the Sughd Region. A terrorist from the extremist organization “Jamoati Ansorulloh” crashed into the RDCOC building in a car filled with explosives during a morning meeting. This fact shows the growing threat of extremist ideology, since, for 5 years of the civil war of 1992-1997. warring parties did not use suicide bombers.

In September 2010, for the first time in the history of Tajikistan, a suicide attack took place near the RDCOC building in Khujand. Photo: ozodi.org

In 2014-2016 there was an increase in the involvement of citizens into the IS organization. According to field studies, recruitment mainly occurred among labor migrants. Recruiters also used social networks.
According to the State National Security Committee of the Republic of Tajikistan on November 19, 2018, a total number of 1,899 Tajik citizens joined the IS terrorists.[4] A significant part of them was recruited precisely in 2014-2016, and this happened in conditions of labor migration.
Thus, in the same years, a need arose for the development of a comprehensive state policy to counter extremism and terrorism, as well as for the rehabilitation of civilian members of terrorist groups who realized the harmfulness of their actions.

Structure analysis of the National Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan on countering extremism and terrorism for 2016-2020
By a decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, Emomali Rakhmon, dated November 12, 2016, the special “National Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan to Combat Extremism and Terrorism for 2016-2020” and the “Action Plan for the Implementation of the National Strategy” were approved. Tajikistan was the first Central Asian country to adopt such documents.
It was planned that the National Strategy (NS) will be implemented in three stages:
The first phase covers 2016. This is creating favorable conditions for the implementation of the Strategy, drawing the attention of state bodies, the public and international organizations to this problem, developing plans and projects for the implementation of specific points of the Action Plan for the Strategy implementation.
The second stage of the Strategy is 2017-2018, which was about the creation and implementation of mechanisms to prevent and combat extremism and radicalization leading to terrorism.
The third phase covers the years 2019-2020. At this stage, the implementation of the mechanisms for preventing and combating extremism and terrorism and their improvement depending on the monitoring results are ensured. At the end of the third stage, it is planned to generalize the results of the Strategy implementation and, if necessary, formulate proposals for the development of new strategic planning documents in this area.
The National Strategy reflects the main actions of state bodies and civil society institutions, as well as a new interpretation of the problems of extremism and terrorism, which is reflected in the following senses:
– recognition of extremism and terrorism as a complex problem. Therefore, the development and implementation of “a set of measures aimed at neutralizing the ideological, socio-economic, legal and institutional factors of their activation is needed”.[5] – the importance of increasing the level of political culture and legal literacy of the population as factors in the stable development of society, the need for their protection and compliance by state bodies;
– recognition of the factor of corruption as an obstacle to the realization of the rights and freedoms of citizens, the development and implementation of state programs to combat it with the involvement of the public;
– recognition of the factor of adverse socio-economic conditions. The recognition that the lack of the possibility of personal self-realization and a sense of hopelessness can serve as the basis for the formation of extremist sentiments and increase the level of radicalization of society. In this vein, a part of the population dissatisfied with the intermediate results of socio-economic reforms can easily succumb to extremist calls;
– recognition that a drop in the level of socio-economic well-being and marginalization of the population can create threats of radicalization. It is necessary to increase the welfare and culture of the population, create motivation for a constructive, healthy lifestyle, provide opportunities for adaptation and participation in the life of the socially vulnerable segments of the population, etc .;
– recognition of the importance of having a national idea as a barrier to the penetration and dissemination of radical ideas. The activities of radical religious organizations at the global level pose a serious challenge to such an idea, as they strive to create a single theocratic state. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement a national idea, combining the principles of an open civil society and the spiritual and moral traditions of the Tajik people;
– the importance of ensuring freedom of conscience and belief, the right to independently determine the attitude to religion; assist in obtaining religious education;
– the importance of providing quality education, leisure activities and solving socio-economic problems of youth;
– the importance of ensuring gender equality, increasing social activity and the role of women in society, as well as ensuring the equal rights of men and women in family relations;
– the importance of counter-propaganda activities using modern information technologies, as terrorist organizations widely use the capabilities and potential of the Internet;

Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary-General (2007-2016)
 “The Internet is a prime example of how terrorists can behave in a truly transnational way; in response, States need to think and function in an equally transnational manner.” 
– The importance of providing labor resources with jobs in the country, since labor migrants in their countries of residence are at great risk of radicalization and involvement in extremist and terrorist organizations;
 – The importance of preventing the spread of extremist views in prisons. Since, due to their specificity, they are subject to the risks of the spread of extremism and radicalization. The sources of the spread of radical views are persons convicted of such activities, who often continue to carry out propaganda activities and recruit prisoners;
– Recognition of the vulnerability of law enforcement officers and military personnel to extremist propaganda by virtue of communicating on service with extremist elements, studying extremist literature or direct recruitment, etc.;
– Recognition of the importance of involving civil society institutions, the media, the private sector and each member of the society in the prevention of extremism and terrorism as a condition for achieving success;
– The importance of international and regional cooperation in countering extremism and terrorism.

Implementations of the document: practical achievements and shortcomings
The fact of the adoption of this document in the conditions of Tajikistan is certainly a great achievement. This can be indicated in the following points:
Firstly, representatives of competent state bodies, civil society, experts and religious leaders took part in the development of the document. To create the National Strategy, international experience was studied, a national study was conducted in all regions of the country (in which broad sections of Tajik society were represented). This positive experience shows that the involvement of various groups of society can guarantee the development of an effective document and can play a positive role in building a secular and democratic state.
Secondly, in the text of the National Strategy and in the Implementation Plan of the National Strategy, the importance of the participation of civil society, the private sector and each individual citizen in the prevention and counteraction of extremism and terrorism is noted. In the implementation plan of the National Strategy, it is said that competent state bodies should promote the emergence of public organizations involved in the prevention of extremism and terrorism. This, of course, is a step forward in the development of civil society.
Thirdly, carrying out research within the framework of the National Strategy implementation on monitoring the situation, on the part of state and public organizations, provided to the study of the causes and factors contributing to radicalization. In the 2000s and early 2010, it was difficult to conduct large-scale research. However, with the adoption of the document, today we have a number of analytical reports on the results of sociological and qualitative studies that explain the causes and consequences of radicalization from various perspectives.
Fourthly, over the past few years, a number of doctoral and master’s theses on extremism in political science, philosophy, and jurisprudence have been defended. These works analyze the relevant national experience of Tajikistan. In other words, due to the relevance of this problem, a significant number of applicants have chosen various aspects of the topics of extremism and terrorism as the theme of their dissertations and in the next 3-5 years we will witness the defense of new scientific papers.
Fifthly, as part of the implementation of the National Strategy Implementation Plan, the central and local executive bodies developed their own action plans to prevent extremism and radicalism. Large-scale preventive work was carried out in all regions of the country, as a result of which the importance of countering extremism and terrorism was brought to a large number of citizens.
Sixthly, over the period of the National Strategy implementation, the access of youth to sports and cultural institutions has noticeably improved. In all regions of the country, especially in Dushanbe, sports grounds were built for football and volleyball, etc. Today in all regions of the country there are educational centers for the study of languages, several new community centers and theaters have been built. The created infrastructure in the medium term will play a significant role in the positive development of youth.  

Read more: What Do Children Returned from Iraq Need?

Shortcomings and Lowlights of the Strategy
The following points can be mentioned as shortcomings and lowlights in the implementation of the National Strategy, which concern all sectors of Tajik society:
The text and the implementation plan of the National Strategy form broad public expectations of possible results. For objective reasons, a number of provisions of the implementation plan have not been translated into reality.
Firstly, the text and the implementation plan of the National Strategy form broad public expectations of possible results. For objective reasons, a number of provisions of the implementation plan have not been translated into reality. Primarily, this is due to the financing of individual measures and activities.
Secondly, the country has not formed a community of NGOs that work at the proper level to prevent extremism. Many NGOs working in this direction began to deal with this because of the urgency of the problem, and also due to the possibility of obtaining grants. Therefore, the sustainability of many NGO projects is difficult to assess.
Thirdly, in the coverage of the problems of extremism and terrorism, “mythical” and constructed “realities” were observed. A pool of journalists has not formed yet in the country that could professionally cover this topic. The use of hate speech and the demonization of extremists must be particularly emphasized.
According to Tajik expert Rustam Azizi, citizens involved in extremist groups can be divided into two groups: active or ideological radicals who are difficult to rehabilitate and those who can be convinced, i.e. passive radicals or concomitant victims of radicalization.[6] 
In the media, both groups were issued as a single entity. The use of inappropriate terms “justifying” the actions of extremists is also observed. Work with journalists on the coverage of issues related to extremism and terrorism will remain particularly relevant.
Fourth, the ongoing preventive work in the regions needs major changes. There is a need in new social constructs and social engineering, by considering the specifics of the regions and their needs.
Fifth, Tajik experts and analysts were not able to present the experience of Tajikistan in the prevention of extremism and terrorism to the regional and international community. Law enforcement agencies carried out extensive work on: 1) the return of persons from the territories of the “terrorist organization of the Islamic State (banned in Tajikistan and other Central Asian countries, –  Ed. note )”; 2) the return of children from Iraq; 3) the return of persons suspected of and members of extremist organizations, etc. Undoubtedly, the priority work in this direction will be the implementation of measures with the consequences of radicalization, since after 2017 there has been a decrease in the involvement of citizens in extremist and terrorist organizations.
The actual direction of work can be called rehabilitation and resocialization of returnees. In this direction, Tajikistan has had unique experience since the 1990s, when more than a million citizens (refugees) from Afghanistan and other countries were returned to the country. In the post-conflict peace-building phase, not only civilians were rehabilitated and integrated into peaceful life, but also the military formations of the former UTO (United Tajik Opposition), some of which are still serving in the country’s law enforcement agencies.
The conceptualization of this experience and its use for the rehabilitation and reintegration of returnees, of course, can serve as a successful example not only for Tajikistan, but also for other states of the post-Soviet space.

It is necessary to strengthen the potential of civil society, including the media, in the process of preventing extremism. In general, it is necessary to continue to develop partnerships between government bodies and civil society institutions.
Sixth, it is necessary to strengthen the potential of civil society, including the media, in the process of preventing extremism. In general, it is necessary to continue to develop partnerships between government bodies and civil society institutions.
Seventh, the development and implementation of soft tools, i.e. approaches not of a forceful nature, but more aimed at designing intelligent products that can act as an alternative to a radical worldview in the prevention of extremism and terrorism. Studies show that extremist groups attach great importance to intellectual products and form a positive and attractive background for their ideas. Therefore, the development of intelligent products can also play a significant role in the prevention and counteraction of extremism in the medium term.  
All these shortcomings have various reasons, including a lack of finance or lack of necessary expert support. These proposals can be used in the process of preparing a new edition of the National Strategy for the coming years.


This publication was produced under IWPR project «Forging links and raising voices to combat radicalization in Central Asia».


[1] About the stages of the prevention of extremism in Tajikistan, see the author’s article: Rizoyon Sh.Sh. Tajikistan’s experience in the prevention of extremism: problems and prospects  // Collection “Countering the ideology of terrorism: concepts and targeted prevention” (Materials of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference). Ufa, 2019 .– pp. 15-24.
[2] National Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan on countering extremism and terrorism for 2016-2020 (approved by Decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan dated November 12, 2016, No. 776);
[3] See: List of organizations recognized by the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tatarstan as terrorist and extremist (date of appeal March 15, 2017). –C.1-2. URL: http://nbt.tj/upload/iblock/ede/sp_ter_org.pdf
[4] Preventing youth involvement in a terrorist organization is also the responsibility of civil society / 15.11.2018. URL: sadoimardum.tj/ma-lisi-ol/peshgirii-albi-avonon-ba-tashkiloti-terrorist-vazifai-omeai-sha-rvand-niz-ast/
[5] National Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan on countering extremism and terrorism for 2016-2020 (text). –Dushanbe: 2016. –С.3.

[6] Speech at the international scientific and practical conference “Secularism, secularism, religiosity in the post-Soviet space: historical, legal, philosophical and philosophical aspects” (October 23-25, 2019), Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan   

Kyrgyzstan: How to Resolve Issues of Violence Against Children of Migrant Workers?

«Labor migration is often the only way out of a difficult financial situation. However, the factor of the absence of parents leads to many psychological and social problems of the child,» – Aigerim Arzymatova, a specialist of the Office of the Ombudsman, Kyrgyz Republic, a participant of the School of Analytics CABAR.asia, notes in her article written specifically for CABAR.asia.

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Month in Review: Central Asia in October 2019

October 2019 in Central Asia was remembered by the selection of Chinese face recognition systems in the capitals of three countries, meetings of regional leaders within the CIS and the Turkic Council, toughening Internet censorship and active cooperation in the military sphere. The analytical platform CABAR.asia provides a brief overview of the most significant events of the region over the past month.

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Why Should Uzbekistan Improve its Position in the Global Innovation Index?

«The implementation of ambitious tasks will require the active and coordinated work of ministries and departments, since most of such indicators as the Global Innovation Index or the Global Competitiveness Index are composite indicators consisting of numerous sub-indicators», – mentions economist Rauf Salakhodzhaev in his article, written specifically for CABAR.asia.

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Kazakhstan: Fair Elections are Impossible Without Reforms of the Electoral System

«Under favorable political circumstances, a correctly chosen electoral system, through the representation of the opposition and the emergence of genuine competition, can contribute to the gradual democratization of the regime», – political analyst Dimash Alzhanov, notes in his article written specifically for CABAR.asia.

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Police Reform in Tajikistan: What Should Be the Priority?

Tajik authorities expect the reform of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to strengthen the potential of the police in order to combat crime and ensure internal security. However, civil society expects these changes to also be a step forward in the fight against torture and ill-treatment. 

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Kyrgyzstan: Why Should the High 9% Threshold for Parties Be Lowered?

«Lowering the high electoral threshold can significantly reduce the number of votes that can get “lost” if the elected party did not reach the high threshold. When the electoral threshold is below four percent, the proportional system elections facilitates the election of parties for which these votes were cast», – notes a human rights activist Dinara Oshurakhunova in her article for CABAR.asia. (more…)

The experts

Marufjon Abdujaborov

Chief Specialist at the Strategic Research Center Under the President of Tajikistan. Participant of CABAR.asia School of Analytics (Dushanbe)

Rashid Ghani Abdullo

Independent expert

Rustam Azizi

Deputy Director of the Center for Islamic Studies under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan

Ainura Akmatalieva

Director of the Institute of Perspective Policy

Iskander Akylbayaev

Researcher of KazISS, the Department of Foreign Policy and International Security

Guldastasho Alibakhshev

Researcher at the Center of Sociological Research "Zerkalo", CABAR.asia School of Analytics participant (Dushanbe)

Bakhtiyor Alimdjanov

Independent researcher, Ph.D in History (Tashkent)

Dimash Alzhanov

Political scientist, member of "Oyan, Kazakhstan" movement (Almaty).

Nailya Almukhamedova

Director General of the Parasat System Research Institute; participant of the School of Analytics cabar.asia (Astana)

Anna Alshanskaya

Senior Researcher at the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, participant of the CABAR.asia School of Analytics (Nur-Sultan)

Farkhod Aminjonov

Ph.D., senior researcher at the Eurasian Research Institute

Aydar Amrebayev

Head of the Center for Political Science and International Studies

Mahram Anvarzod

Islamic scholar

Hamidjon Arifov

PhD. in geological-mineralogical sciences, Tajik Committee of the International Commission on Large Dams, Lead Researcher at the Tajik Institute of Water Issues, Hydropower and Ecology

Zarema Askarova

Independent expert

Indira Aslanova

Expert on religious studies

Slyamzhar Akhmedzharov

Researcher at the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, participant of CABAR.asia School of Analytics

Anvar Babayev

PhD in Economics, Head Analyst and Director of the Population Migration Section of the Tajik Academy of Science’s Institute of Economics and Demographics

Erzhan Bagdatov

Executive Director of the Center of Media Technologies

Erkin Baydarov

Leading researcher of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan

Sheradil Baktygulov

Independent expert

Serik Beysembayev

Sociologist

Nazik Beishenaly

President, Union of Cooperatives of Kyrgyzstan

Nurbek Bekmurzaev

Independent researcher, participant of cabar.asia School of Analytics (Bishkek)

Danil Bekturganov

President of the Public Foundation "Civil Expertise"

Denis Berdakov

Political scientist

Valentin Bogatyrev

Head of the analytical consortium "Perspective"

Konstantin Bondarenko

Economist

Muslimbek Buriev

Political scientist, participant of cabar.asia School of Analytics (Dushanbe)

Rustam Burnashev

Political scientist

Mereke Gabdualiev

Сonstitutional lawyer, director of the public foundation “Institute for the Development of Constitutionalism and Democracy”

Alexander Galiyev

Editor of Computerworld.kz

Gulyaev Sergey

General Director of PF "Decenta"

Anna Gusarova

Director of the Central Asian Institute for Strategic Studies (Almaty)

Zoir Davlatov

Independent expert

Nurali Davlatov

Journalist-Analyst

Nazima Davletova

Editor-in-chief of "Interview" media project, online edition of Gazeta.uz

Emil Djuraev

Political scientist, assistant professor of the American University in Central Asia

Salamat Dzhybykeev

International Relations Specialist (Bishkek)

Svetlana Dzardanova

Political scientist, coordinator of Research and Training of the OSCE Academy in Bishkek

Sergey Domnin

Chief editor of “Expert Kazakhstan” magazine

Asel Doolotkeldieva

Ph.D., political scientist

Roza Duisheeva

Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations and Social Sciences of the International Kuwait University; participant of the cabar.asia School of Analytics (Bishkek)

Berikbol Dukeyev

Political scientist, PhD researcher at the Australian National University.

Bakhtier Ergashev

Director of the Center for Political Initiatives "Māno"

Zamira Zholdaskyzy

Analyst at the Center for the Development of Labor Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan, participant of CABAR.asia School of Analytics (Nur-Sultan)

Zaynab Dost

Independent expert

Galiya Ibragimova

Independent expert

Tamerlan Ibraimov

Director of the Center for Political and Legal Studies

Ruslan Izimov

Sinologist, head of the "Eurasian Studies Program" of the Institute for World Economics and Politics under the Foundation of First President of the Kazakhstan, director of the Center for China Studies in Central Asia "Synopsys"

Alisher Ilkhamov

Independent Researcher (London)

Fabio Indeo

Specialist in geopolitics in Central Asia

Zamira Isakova

Central Asia Political and Security Specialist (Bishkek)

Kosimsho Iskandarov

Head of Conflict Resolution and Regional Research Center in association with the Academy of Sciences

Amina Kalmamatova

cabar.asia intern

Lesya Karataeva

Ph.D. is Chief Researcher at the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Nuriddin Karshiboyev

Chairman of the National Association of Independent Media of Tajikistan

Yerlan Kassym

Specialist in energy policy, green economy and alternative energy. Government and Public Relations adviser at Royal Dutch Shell in Kazakhstan (Nur-Sultan)

Ekaterina Kasymova

Independent expert

Adil Kaukenov

Sinologist, political scientist

Turonbek Kozokov

cabar.asia intern

Iskandar Qonunov

Political scientist

Alla Kuvatova

Sociologist, PhD

Kodir Kuliev

Anti-Corruption and Human Rights Expert (Tashkent)

Zaynidin Kurmanov

Professor of the Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University

Aidarkhan Kusainov

Financial analyst and general director of the Almagest Management and Strategy Consulting Company

Nazik Mamedova

Independent researcher, participant of CABAR.asia School of analytics (Bishkek)

Talgat Mamyrayimov

Independent expert

Dilmira Matyakubova

Independent researcher (Tashkent)

Askar Mashayev

Political commentator (Almaty)

Michael Petrushkov

Chairman of the Business Development Center of the Republic of Tajikistan

Kairat Moldashev

Professor - Researcher of the Narxoz University (Almaty)

Atay Moldobaev

Head of “Prudent Solutions” Analytical Department

Anton Morozov

Ph.D., political scientist

Parviz Mullodjanov

Ph.D. political scientist, политолог, orientalist and independent researcher from Tajikistan

Anar Musabaeva

Independent political analyst (Bishkek)

Marat Musuraliev

Economist, Deputy Director of Smart Business Solutions Central Asia

Elmira Nogoibayeva

Head of the Analytical Center "Policy Asia"

Zhaslan Nurbaev

Associate Professor at Gumilyov Eurasian National University, participant of the CABAR.asia School of Analytics (Nur-Sultan)

Dinara Nurusheva

Researcher

Diana Okremova

Director of the “Legal Media Centre” Public Foundation

Edil Osmonbetov

Political scientist

Dinara Oshurahunova

Human rights activist, member of the international parliamentary monitoring network (Bishkek)

Lidiya Parkhomchik

Senior Researcher, Eurasian Research Institute

Anastasiya Reshetnyak

Senior Researcher of the Kazakhstan Institute of Strategic Studies

Sherali Rizoyon

Political Scientist (Dushanbe)

Jaksylyk Sabitov

PhD, Eurasian National University

Maral Sagynalieva

Independent researcher, participant of CABAR.asia School of analytics (Bishkek)

Rauf Salahodjaev

Economist, Senior Researcher at International Westminster University (Tashkent)

Sardor Salim

Political Scientist (Tashkent)

Farrukh Salimov

PhD in History

Yuriy Sarukhanyan

International Relations Specialist. Participant of the cabar.asia School of Analysts (Tashkent).

Rafael Sattarov

Political scientist

Petr Svoik

Political scientist

Inga Sikorskaya

Media expert and director of the School of peacemaking and media technology in Central Asia

Olga Simakova

Public Fund "Center for Social and Political Studies ‘Strategy’"

Klara Soronkulova

Lawyer, former judge of the Constitutional Chamber of KR Supreme Court

Konstantin Syroejkin

PhD., leading Kazakhstani Sinologist

Alisher Taksanov

Independent expert

Azamat Temirkulov

Associate Professor, Doctor of Political Sciences (Bishkek)

Anuar Temirov

Analyst, participant of the CABAR.asia's school of analysts (Nur-Sultan)

Medet Tyulegenov

Head of the Department of “International and Comparative Politics”, AUCA

Esen Usubaliev

Head of the analytical center "Prudent Solutions", specialist in international relations

Farkhod Tolipov

Political scientist, the director of the non-governmental scientific and educational institution "Bilim Carvoni"

Komron Khidoyatzoda

Editor of diplomatic messenger "MISSION"

Yevgeniy Khon

Economist

Khursand Khurramov

Political scientist

Andrey Chebotarev

Director, Centre for Contemporary Research «Alternativa»

Ajar Chekirova

PhD candidate at the Department of Political Science at the University of Illinois in Chicago

Irina Chernykh

Chief Researcher at the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Doctor of History, Professor

Iskender Sharsheev

Economist, Executive Director of the Association of Foreign Investors (Bishkek)

Eratov Iskender

Independent expert

Chinara Esengul

Senior Advisor for the conflicts prevention, UNDP

Guly Yuldasheva

Dilmurad Yusupov

PhD student at the Institute of Development Studies of the University of Sussex, participant of cabar.asia School of Analytics (Tashkent).

Yuliy Yusupov

Economist, director of Center for Economic Development (Tashkent)