June 2020 in Central Asia is remembered for the crisis-ridden epidemiological situation in the region; easing and tightening of quarantine measures; various protests; the decline of free speech; arrests and convictions of activists and former officials. The analytical platform CABAR.asia provides a brief overview of the most significant events of the region over the past month.
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Over the past month, the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan has deteriorated dramatically. Following the increase in reported cases of coronavirus infection, some cities experience shortfall in hospital capacity. Additional hospital beds were deployed in the Almaty Arena and Halyk Arena sports halls.
On June 23, Nur-Sultan clinics temporarily suspended doctor appointments. Patients should now seek medical assistance online. Public and private kindergartens had also been shut down in the capital.
According to the Kazakh Ministry of Health, by June 30, the number of coronavirus cases in the country totaled 21,819. The death toll is 188.
COVID-19 control measures
In response to the deteriorating situation in several regions of the country, an interdepartmental commission decided to introduce strict new measures from June 20 to 21.
Particularly in Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Shymkent and other cities, shopping centers, food and non-food markets, public catering facilities, public transport, fitness centers, and parks had been closed. People aged 65 and older are restricted from going outside.
Resumption of international flights
On June 20, Kazakhstan resumed international flights to several countries, including Turkey, China, South Korea, Thailand, Georgia, and Japan.
On June 26, 11 other countries were included in the list (categories 1 and 2) for flight resumption. Travelers coming from countries in the second category must have a coronavirus clearance certificates; otherwise, they would be required to quarantine for 14 days.
President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev signed a decree proposing Senate elections on August 12, 2020.
The government and the heads of regional administrations were requested to arrange the organizational part, logistics, and financial support of the elections.
The Senate is the upper house of the Kazakh Parliament. The Senate is composed of deputies, representing two people from each oblast, city of national significance and the capital. 15 deputies are appointed by the president. The Senate is elected on the basis of voting by secret ballot.
Expansion of presidential power
On June 10, Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev has introduced some legislative changes to martial law.
In particular, the document expands the president’s military powers, which could henceforth apply in peacetime while defense planning. For instance, approving regulations for the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces and determining the application of martial law.
On May 16, the president has signed similar amendments extending the scope of the president’s emergency powers. Experts are concerned the amendments would lead to the erosion of democratic institutions in the president’s favor, i.e. empowered authoritarian tendency in the political system.
Zhanbolat Mamai and the Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan (DCK) had called for protests on June 6 in several cities of Kazakhstan .
Detentions during the June 6 protest in Almaty. Credit: Vladimir Tretyakov.
The protesters’ demands included a range of calls for the debt cancellation, a ban on selling land to foreigners, the release of political prisoners, and the change of Nazarbayev’s political regime.
Police officers in Almaty and Nursultan, well before the protests, had cordoned off the venue, while also blocking roads in the blocks nearby. Authorities stated that demonstrations are banned during quarantine, whereas a notification process for holding demonstrations can only take place after the new protest law comes into force.
More than a hundred people reportedly were detained in Almaty, Nursultan and other cities of Kazakhstan.
Sentence for activists
On June 4, a Kazakhstan national Arman Khasenov, who had been arrested in April on charges of insulting the first president Nursultan Nazarbayev, was sentenced to three years in prison.
On April 12, Arman Khasenov published a video, in which he delivered a harsh and often obscenity-laced tirade against the first president, questioning the origin of Nazarbayev’s family fortune.
On June 22, prominent civic activist Alnur Ilyashev has also been sentenced to three years in prison. The activist is accused of publishing negative information relating to the Nur Otan party and calling on the government to resign.
Experts believe that by arresting civil activists, the government reinforces its efforts to quash the fledging Kazakh protest scene.
Over the past few weeks, the epidemiological situation in Kyrgyzstan has deteriorated dramatically. On July 1, 439 new coronavirus cases were reported in one day, setting a record for new coronavirus cases since the beginning of the outbreak in Kyrgyzstan.
As the country experiences a shortfall in hospital capacity, the authorities decided to keep the infected patients under home isolation. The health authorities receive a substantial number of complaints from Bishkek residents on the failure to provide timely medical care.
By June 30, the number of coronavirus cases in the country totaled 5,296, 830 of which are medical workers. Among some general causes of the steep increase in the number of new infections are citizens’ ignorance or failure to adhere to public health and hygiene regulations and the government’s negligent failure to address the issue.
In response to the deteriorating situation, public transportation and taxi service in Bishkek will be suspended on weekends starting June 27.
Other data: 57 people have died; 721 are receiving in-hospital treatment, whilst 2148 are in home isolation.
Draft bill on NGOs
On June 18, MPs had adopted in the second reading amendments to the law on non-profit organizations (NPOs). Under the new bill, NGOs are obliged to engage in more exhaustive reporting on their finances.
A coalition of 180 NGOs in Kyrgyzstan submitted a petition to parliament to drop this proposal, which establishes discriminatory requirements for NGOs.
NGO representatives believe the draft bill is designed to discredit and demonize organizations that oppose unfair government practices.
The draft bill on “Manipulating Information”
On June 25, deputies of the Jogorku Kenesh had approved in the second and third readings the bill dubbed “On manipulating information”. The new legislation requires internet service providers to store user data and provide it to judicial and other authorized bodies upon request.
Local activists describe this legislation as a serious step toward curtailing freedom of speech and the right to access to information, both envisioned in the country’s Constitution and international obligations and treaties. Human rights activists believe the bill gives sweeping power to the authorities to censor an online space.
On June 29, nearly a thousand people went onto the streets to join the #REaction 3.0 protest that was held in the central streets of Bishkek. Demonstrators demanded the president veto legislation and relinquishing the deputyship of the bill’s authors. A similar demonstration was held outside of the White House on the day the bill was passed.
A Free speech rally dubbed #REaction 3.0. Credit: kipish.kg
11-year sentence for Atambayev
On June 23, the Pervomaysky District Court sentenced former Kyrgyz President to 11 years and two months in prison with confiscation of his property and stripping him of all-state awards.
The former president, who long contested that the persecution is politically motivated, has been found guilty in the early release of criminal Aziz Batukayev.
In 2013, Aziz Batukayev was released early ostensibly because of health issues. The same year, a parliamentary commission established Batukayev’s medical report to be falsified.
Shortly before that, Atambayev that has been held in a pre-trial detention center of the State Committee for National Security (SCNS), had been transferred to a hospital suffering from community-acquired double pneumonia. The department suggests that Atambayev may have contracted the infection from his lawyer.
Sentence for Isakov
On June 9, the Pervomaysky District Court has found former Kyrgyz Prime Minister Sapar Isakov guilty of misusing state funds allocated for the renovation of Bishkek’s National History Museum and a hippodrome in Issyk-Kul.
In December 2019, Sapar Isakov was sentenced to 15 years in prison on corruption charges stemming from his involvement in a 2013 project to modernize a thermal power plant in Bishkek. Given his earlier verdict, the court ruled to sentence Isakov in aggregate of 18 years in a high-security penitentiary and recover 247 million som in fines from him.
Sapar Isakov was detained in the summer of 2018 amid tensions between ex-president Atambayev and incumbent Sooronbay Jeenbekov. Atambayev’s supporters have reiterated that the persecution of the former prime minister is politically motivated.
Yet another border dispute
On May 31, the fighting broke out in the Batken region, along the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, between villager in the Kyrgyz settlement of Chechme and the Uzbek enclave of Sokh.
The two country officials studied the incident, and it appears to have arisen out of a dispute over the joint water purification. Violence along the border left hurt 187 Uzbek and 25 Kyrgyz citizens.
Kyrgyz Deputy Prime Minister and the Uzbek Prime Minister traveled to the scene of the unrest on June 1. The parties pledged to take joint action in attempts to resolve the situation.
The border areas along the Ferghana Valley have been a source of tensions among both villagers and border troops.
Kyrgyzstan accuses Kazakhstan of unimplemented agreements
On June 9, the Kyrgyz Ministry of Economy has leveled accusations at neighboring Kazakhstan that it willfully obstructed the export of goods, including agricultural products, under the guise of combating the proliferation of smuggling.
Earlier, the Kazakh side said that 90 percent of imports from the Kyrgyz territory is supported by non-conforming documents. The Ministry claims it is still awaiting Kazakhstan’s response to these claims.
Kazakhstan is also yet to comment on disregarding Value at Risk (VAR) indicators, which has been depriving the EEU of customs revenue that should be shared among bloc members, whilst also fostering an unfair competition between business entities of these countries.
Kazakh service officials periodically intensify inspections at checkpoints between the two countries, arguing that the problem lies in Kyrgyzstan’s inadequate customs administration.
Head of the government resigns
On June 16, President of Kyrgyzstan Sooronbai Jeenbekov signed a decree accepting the resignation of Prime Minister Mukhamedkalyi Abylgaziev.
The Prime Minister’s resignation was preceded by a corruption scandal over national radio frequencies. The ongoing criminal investigation is prompted by the sale of 200 megahertz of radio frequencies at below-market prices that brought multimillion-dollar damage to the state. One of the MPs most vocally has leveled accusations against the ex-prime minister over his involvement in the scandal.
Mukhamedkaly Abylgaziev said he had to resign as the corruption probe undermines trust in the government and ultimately impedes its ability to deliver results.
A new political party
On June 5, in the run-up to the Kyrgyz parliamentary elections, a new “Zhany dem” (“Fresh Momentum”) alliance had been announced. It is comprised of various political party members.
Another eminent Zhany Dem party member is Temir Sariyev, a former Prime Minister and leader of the Ak-Shumkar party. The politician ran for presidency in 2017.
The signed strategic partnership memorandum says that “Zhany dem” wishes to revitalize political forces. Experts argue that the revitalizing efforts would reach only the newly created alliance, and not political persons.
As of June 30, Tajikistan reported a total of 5,900 coronavirus cases, whereas 52 died and 264 are currently in hospitals.
Following the gradual stabilization of the epidemiological situation, Tajikistan began to relax quarantine restrictions. The country resumed the work of shopping centers, clothing markets, catering points, hotels and beauty salons on June 15. Few businesses in service industry also reconvened.
People can hold weddings from June 20. Starting July 1, international flights to Uzbekistan and the UAE will be restored.
Despite the improvement, the authorities are in no hurry to open borders. Moreover, on June 26, deputies of the upper house of parliament approved amendments to impose fines for violating “mask control”. The fine varies from 116 to 290 somoni.
On June 5, President Emomali Rahmon signed a decree on tax breaks for certain types of business.
- from April 1 to September 1, 2020 – tax holidays for tourism facilities, hotels, catering, sports centers, international transport organizations;
- from May 1 to September 1, 2020 – small and medium-sized businesses are exempted from paying rent for state property;
- from May 1 to September 1, 2020 – exemptions from paying real estate property tax for individuals;
- from July 1 to September 1, 2020 – import of medical goods intended to combat COVID-19 is exempted from customs duties;
- from June 1 to December 31, 2020 – the income tax rate on the percentage from deposits of individuals is reduced to 6 percent.
- On June 19, the Japanese government had approved the allocation of 57 million somoni;
- On June 18, ADB had approved the allocation of $ 50 million to address the implications of coronavirus pandemic;
- About 50 thousand low-income families with small children will receive a payment of 500 somoni from the World Bank;
- Kuwait had transferred 37 tons of humanitarian aid in the form of medical equipment on June 5 and 10.
- On June 5, USAID and the Aga Khan Foundation allocated $ 2.6 million.
Fine for fake COVID-19 information
On June 26, MPs approved amendments to introduce administrative responsibility for disseminating false information on the coronavirus pandemic.
The amendments introduce administrative fines ranging from 57 to 1130 US dollars for individuals and legal entities.
On June 23, civil society representatives appealed to the President of Tajikistan with a request to reject these amendments, which could limit the population’s access to information about the epidemiological situation.
Human rights defenders, however, note that the introduction of these amendments may cause deliberate violation of the rights of media practitioners.
The detention of the Kulyab mayor
On June 8, the State National Security officers detained the Kulyab mayor Bahrom Inoyatzoda on charges of corruption offenses .
The previously detained city hall officials had testified against Bakhrom Inoyatzoda stating that they had committed criminal acts on mayor’s orders. The State Committee for National Security also received statements from local residents on Inoyatzoda’s corruption offenses.
Abdukodir Valizoda, who had previously worked as the mayor of Tursunzade, was appointed acting mayor of the Kulyab town.
Protests in GBAO
On June 16, residents of GBAO’s Rushan district reconvened outside the local administration building. Residents argue that the negotiations with the provincial chairperson that took place in early June were unsuccessful.
Local residents have been protesting in Rushansky district since May 23 demanding that the authorities stop the persecution of three teenagers who had previously been detained in the ensuing conflict with the officers of the SCNS district department. The opposition leader Yodgor Gulomkhaydarov, who had also been arrested, defended the young people. After that, local residents gathered outside the building of the National Security Committee and literally recaptured detainees from the custody of law enforcement officers.
Rushansky district residents called on officers to stop persecuting the oppositional leader and three teenagers in fears of torture used in the custody.
Employees of large industrial enterprises in Tajikistan complain about withholding wages.
In particular, the Rogun hydroelectric station construction workers report that they have not been paid since the beginning of 2020. Employees of the Tajik Aluminum Company (TALCO) complain that they receive no salaries for over three months already. Spokespeople of those enterprises state that payments will commence with “an improvement in the COVID-19situation “.
According to statistics agency, wage arrears in Tajikistan increased by 27 percent in April 2020 compared to the first quarter of last year. 75 percent of the arrears are in the mining, transportation and processing industries.
There has been not a single case of coronavirus infection officially confirmed in Turkmenistan. At the same time, an increasing number of patients with severe pneumonia has been observed since mid-June in Ashgabat and other cities.
On June 11, the Turkmenabad Infectious Disease Hospital had been cordoned off after one nurse tested positive for coronavirus. To the north, the country’s authorities have built a quarantine campsite in Dashoguz, where conditions reportedly are poor. The authorities basically refuse to comment on what is happening.
On June 23, the US Embassy in Turkmenistan published a report stating that locals with COVID-19 symptoms had been tested for the virus and then quarantined in substandard conditions. Shortly after, Turkmenistan’s Foreign Ministry stated that the US Embassy is disseminating fake information regarding the country’s COVID-19 control measures.
And there’s a Russian ambassador to Turkmenistan, Alexander Blokhin, who is implicitly convinced that there is no virus in the country, and the Turkmen authorities, apparently, are very happy with that. Some media outlets immediately declared the bribery of the Russian ambassador.
Anti-Government Solidarity Protests
On June 29, Turkmen activists held a rally in front of the UN headquarters in New York. More than 10 people demanded the resignation of President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. On the same day, a similar protest rally was held at the Turkmenistan Embassy in Washington, which was timed to coincide with the president’s birthday.
On June 26, in the Istanbul region of Aksaray, dozens of Turkmen nationals demonstrated against the government. The Turkmen consulate officers reportedly attempted to disrupt the rally by involving provocateurs.
On June 14, the third popular outcry took place in Northern Cyprus. Nearly 50 protesters, too, demanded the resignation of the president.
Following overseas protests, anti-government leaflets and posters circulated in Ashgabat and other cities. Activists went to public places carrying photos of the president with the phrases like “Get out” and “Thief” on them. There were also reports about banknotes with anti-government content in several cities.
After the disaster struck some areas, there has been an escalation in the public outcry. The authorities had practically abandoned local residents to deal with the consequences of the disaster alone, which ultimately led to numerous protests among Turkmen nationals with oppressed voices questioning the president’s indifference to his own people.
In early June, the Sultan Bent dam broke through on the Murghab River, resulting in a hundred flooded residential buildings in the villages of Mary province.
Irrigation water stopped flowing into the canal because of the dam failure. Authorities failed to conduct rescue operations. Residents reportedly built temporary canopies on the hills or moved to neighboring villages.
On June 12, the Karakum Canal overflowed the banks, extensively damaging settlements located between the Lebap and Mary regions. Affected residents did not, too, receive any help from the government.
Detention of the activist
On June 16, an Ashgabat resident Murad Dushemov was detained for oppositional online activities.
A resident of Ashgabat shared his opinion on YouTube regarding anti-government protests held by the Turkmen opposition abroad, and also urged them to cooperate with the people inside the country.
Murad Dushemov reportedly was placed under house arrest on June 26.
The opening of the bridge
On June 9, a new Sarakhs automobile bridge was inaugurated on the Turkmenistan-Iran border, which crosses the Tedjen border river.
The Iranian minister believes the bridge can play a pivotal role in increasing trade volumes between the two countries, while also helping Iran expand its economic ties with the Central Asian countries. The bridge is able to withstand the passing of nearly a thousand trucks per day.
The opening of the bridge took place on the eve of the complete opening of borders between Iran and Turkmenistan.
As in neighboring countries, the Uzbek capital has seen a worsening epidemiological situation over the past two weeks. On June 25, Uzbekistan set a new coronavirus case record reporting 276 new cases in one day. The infection sources of COVID-19 are unidentified.
As of June 30, the Health Ministry reported 8,222 coronavirus cases in the country, with 2,702 active cases and 24 deaths.
According to the chief sanitary physician, irresponsibility among citizens is to blame for the rise in the number of infected. Besides, often it is Uzbek citizens arriving from abroad and international freight transport drivers who test positive for coronavirus.
With the mounting number of virus cases, the president gave instructions to intensify disinfection work in crowded places. In addition, various institutions conduct regular COVID-19 testing among their employees.
The Special Republican Commission decided to resume certain services from June 5. In the yellow quarantine zones, recreation areas, hotels and catering establishments have resumed their services, in the green zones – the list has been expanded to gyms, swimming pools, cultural facilities, training centers and religious institutions.
Public transport on urban and suburban routes resumed in the yellow and green zones from June 8, whilst clothing markets had reopened on June 15.
On June 15, Uzbekistan has restored flights with countries where there is a stable sanitary and epidemiological situation, including Japan, China, South Korea, and Israel.
International flights for EU, CIS, and citizens of other countries shall be restored on the provision that arriving citizens would be quarantined for 14 days.
COVID-19 control measures
Uzbekistan plans to stick to enhanced sanitary-hygiene supervision and the three quarantine zones (yellow, green and red) until August 1, 2020.
On June 22, roadblocks were set up in the zones marked as red in Tashkent.
COVID-19: foreign aid
- On June 25, the Asian Development Bank had approved the allocation of a soft loan for 500 million US dollars;
- On June 17, Japan transferred medical equipment worth $4.6 million;
- On June 5, the US Embassy in Uzbekistan handed over essential reagents for COVID-19 testing with a capacity to conduct 15 thousand tests;
- On June 4, the Foreign Ministry of Canada announced the allocation of 185 thousand US dollars.
On June 12, Uzbekistan has formally applied to obtain the status of a beneficiary country in the European Union’s Generalized System of Preferences (GSP +).
By joining the GSP+ trading scheme, Uzbekistan would significantly increase the volume of export supplies to the EU, as well as boost the competitiveness of its goods in the European market.
If Uzbekistan is approved of unilateral tariff preferences under the GSP + scheme, the country will more than double the number of products that it can export to the EU.
Following the review, the European side has informed Tashkent of the preliminary approval based on compliance with the requirements.
Removal of the auto excise tax
On June 3, Uzbek President Shavkat Mirziyoyev signed a decree on the removal of excise taxation on the import of tractors, cars, vehicles intended for goods transport, among other vehicles.
Currently, the excise tax rate on car imports is 30 percent of the customs value. The excise rate on cars manufactured in Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan is 2 percent. There is also a compulsory VAT payment at a 15 percent rate.
The decision is expected to enter into force on August 1, 2020.
On June 19, the Senate approved the appointment of Feruza Makhmudova to the post of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the State of Israel. Prior to that, Makhmudova chaired the Foreign Ministry’s main department on bilateral cooperation.
The members of the Senate accentuate that Feruza Makhmudova became the first female ambassador in the history of independent Uzbekistan. The daughter of the first president, Gulnara Karimova, nonetheless, served as the ambassador of Uzbekistan to Spain from 2010 to 2012.
On June 26, Shavkat Mirziyoyev signed the law on the Republic of Uzbekistan’s acceding to the protocol on the prohibition of the use of asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare.
According to members of the Senate, by joining the Geneva Protocol (June 1925), Uzbekistan strengthens its position in the international community.
This protocol is a document attesting and supplementing the Convention that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors, signed in April 1972.
Torture in police custody
On June 15, the nationwide Yuxalish movement called for a radical reform of the law enforcement system with an emphasis on respect for human rights and freedoms through parliamentary and public scrutiny.
As reported, the Criminal Investigation Department officers, using torture, contributed to the death of an Andijan resident. As a result, criminal proceedings were instituted against these officers.
The incident involving an Andijan civilian was not the first time, since the beginning of 2020, using torture and violence in police custody. Yuksalish recommends introducing audio and video recording systems during investigations.
The UN Committee is deeply concerned about reports of torture and police brutality.
On June 24, Russia held its Victory Day military parade in Moscow marking the 75th anniversary of the Nazi defeat. The presidents of all five Central Asian countries were invited to the parade.
The presidents of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan arrived in Moscow to participate in solemn celebrations. Along with the Russian servicemen, troops from all five Central Asian countries took part in the parade.
President of Kyrgyzstan Sooronbai Jeenbekov, having arrived earlier in Moscow, could not join the victory parade because two members of his delegation tested positive for coronavirus infection upon their arrival. Kremlin, in its turn, commended Jeenbekov’s decision not to participate, lest the health hazard is unleashed.
On June 19, Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov refused to attend the event because of his birthday celebrations.
COVID-19 pandemic worsening
On June 25, WHO ranked Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan as countries that are seeing accelerated transmission of coronavirus.
According to WHO, over the last two weeks 30 countries in the European Region (WHO) have seen disappointing increases in new cumulative COVID-19 cases. In 11 of them, including Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, accelerated transmission might lead to very significant resurgence.
This might push the health systems of these countries “to the brink”.
Virtual C5 + 1 meeting
On June 30, Central Asian foreign ministers and the US Secretary of State met for a high-profile video conference in the C5 + 1 format.
The parties discussed issues related to the fight against COVID-19, its implications for the health sector and the economy, bringing together countries’ efforts to address those implications and promote economic stability, enhance regional cooperation and ensure regional security.
This material has been prepared as part of the Giving Voice, Driving Change – from the Borderland to the Steppes Project. The opinions expressed in the article do not reflect the position of the editorial board or donor.
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 Maria Orlova, “The Parliament in second reading adopted the scandalous bill on NGOs”, 24kg, June 18, 2020, https://24.kg/vlast/156599_parlament_vovtorom_chtenii_prinyal_skandalnyiy_zakon_obnko/
 Media Policy Institute, “Appeal of 180 NGOs”, Facebook page, June 17, 2020, https://www.facebook.com/media.kg/posts/1197250670612467
 Anna Kapushenko, “The parliament overwhelmingly approved the bill on manipulating information in two readings, Kloop.kg, June 22, 2020, https://kloop.kg/blog/2020/06/22/komitet-parlamenta-srazu -v-dvuh-chteniyah-odobril-zakonoproekt-o-manipulirovanii-informatsiej /
 Kaktusmedia, “The Soros Foundation-Kyrgyzstan called on deputies to dismiss two high-profile bills,” https://kaktus.media/doc/415675_fond_soros_kyrgyzstan_prizval_depytatov_otklonit_dva_rezonansnyh_zakonoproekta.html
 Eugenia Mihailidi, “Lawyers claim the adoption of a new legislation might lead to self-censorship on the Internet”, Kloop.kg, https://kloop.kg/blog/2020/05/15/prinyatie-zakona-o-manipulirovanii -informatsiej-mozhet-privesti-k-gosudarstvennoj-tsenzure-v-internete-yuristy /
 Akipress, “Free Speech March in Bishkek.” Photos, videos ”, June 29, 2020, http://kg.akipress.org/news:1628529?from=mportal&place=nowread
 Kaktusmedia, “Rally, analytics, flash mobs. Reaction to the new information law proposed by Gulshat Asylbaeva, June 25, https://kaktus.media/doc/415839_miting_analitika_fleshmoby._reakciia_na_zakon_ob_informacii_gylshat_asylbaevoy.html
 Former president of the Kyrgyz Republic hospitalized with pneumonia. Azattyk. https://rus.azattyk.org/a/30699053.html
Gulzhan Turdubaeva, “The Museum and the Hippodrome: Sapar Isakov sentenced to 18 years in prison”, Radio Azattyk, June 9, 2020, https://rus.azattyk.org/a/kyrgyzstan_corruption_museum_isakov_2020/30661734.html
 Ruslan Harizov, “Court on History Museum case. Sapar Isakov sentenced to 18 years in prison ”, 24 kg, https://24.kg/obschestvo/155369_sud_poistoricheskomu_muzeyu_sapar_isakov_prigovoren_k18godam_zaklyucheniya/
 Kaktusmedia, “Conflict along the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border: villagrs threw stones at each other,” May 31, 2020, https://kaktus.media/doc/414138_na_kyrgyzsko_yzbekskoy_granice_proizoshel_konflikt:_jiteli_zakidydamivaliami
 Reporter.kg, “The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan commented on the incident along the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border,” June 1, 2020, https://ru.reporter.kg/mid-uzbekistana-prokommentiroval-intsident-na-kyrgyzsko-uzbekskoi-granitse/
 Jenish Aidarov, “The conflict over the access to water along the border between the Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan had been discussed at the governmental level”, Radio Azattyk, June 2, 2020, https://rus.azattyk.org/a/30647642.html
 Kemel Toktomushev, “Promoting social cohesion and conflict mitigation: understanding conflict in the cross-border areas of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan”, UCA, 2017, https://www.ucentralasia.org/Content/downloads/UCA-IPPA- WP40-Promoting% 20Social% 20Cohesion% 20and% 20Conflict% 20Mitigation-Eng.pdf
 Zolord, “President of Kyrgyzstan: Kazakhstan does not comply with the EEU agreement,” February 14, 2020, https://zolord.ru/%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%D1%81% D1% 82% D0% B8 / prezident-kirgizii-kazaxstan-ne-vyipolnyaet-soglashenie-eaes
 Akchabar, “The President accepted the resignation of Muhammedkaly Abylgaziev,” June 16, 2020, https://www.akchabar.kg/ru/news/prezident-prinyal-otstavku-muhammedkalyya-abylgazieva/
 The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, “Prime Minister Muhammedkaly Abylgaziev on short-term leave”, May 27, 2020, https://www.gov.kg/ru/post/s/premer-ministr-mukhammedkalyy-abylgaziev-kyska-mntt- emgek-rgsn-aldy
 Zakon.kz, “The Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan resigned amid the scandal over the sale of radio frequencies,” June 15, 2020, https://www.zakon.kz/5027662-premer-ministr-kyrgyzstana-podal-v.html
 Akchabar, “Kubatbek Boronov appointed Prime Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic”, June 18, 2020, https://www.akchabar.kg/ru/news/kubatbek-boronov-naznachen-premer-ministrom-kr/
 Economist, “Kubatbek Boronov elected the new Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan,” June 16, 2020, https://economist.kg/2020/06/16/kubatbek-boronov-vybran-novym-premer-ministrom-kyrgyzstan/
 Eugenia Mihailidi, “Weak and incapable. Tekebaev and the government – mutual criticism ”, Kloop.kg, February 25, 2020, https://kloop.kg/blog/2020/02/25/slabyj-i-nemoshhnyj-protiv-subektiva-tekebaev-i-pravitelstvo-obmenyalis-kritikoj /
 Islam Roziev, “The Ata Meken party’s campaign will be led by deputy Zhanar Akayev –Tekebaev,” Kloop.kg, June 8, 2020, https://kloop.kg/blog/2020/06/08/predvybornuyu-kampaniyu-partii- ata-meken-vozglavit-deputat-zharan-akaev-tekebaev /
 Altynay Aybek kyzy, “Temir Sariev. Biography ”, Kloop.kg, September 22, 2020, https://kloop.kg/blog/2017/09/22/temir-sariev-biografiya-i-politicheskij-put/
 Reporter.kg, “Ata-Meken Zhany dem: united to avoid becoming outsiders ”, June 9, 2020, https://ru.reporter.kg/ata-meken-zhany-dem-obieedinilis-chtoby-ne- stat-autsaiderami /
 Asia-plus, “Coronavirus in Tajikistan: the number of cases surpasses 5900,” June 30, 2020, https://asiaplustj.info/ru/news/tajikistan/society/20200630/koronavirus-v-tadzhikistane-kolichestvo-zabolevshih- dostigaet-5900-tisyach
 Avesta, “Markets and restaurants will reopen in Tajikistan starting June 15,” June 8, 2020, http://avesta.tj/2020/06/08/s-15-iyunya-v-tadzhikistane-nachnut-rabotat- rynki-i-restorany /
 Avesta, “Weddings in Tajikistan allowed from June 20, and flights to Dubai and Uzbekistan resume on July 1,” June 17, 2020, http://avesta.tj/2020/06/17/v-tadzhikistane-s- 20-iyunya-razreshayutsya-svadby-as-1-iyulya-otkryvayutsya-rejsy-v-dubaj-i-uzbekistan /
 Website of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, “On Preventing the Negative Implications of the COVID-19 on the socio-economic spheres of the Republic of Tajikistan ”, http://www.president.tj/ru/node/23055
 Asia-plus, “The Japanese government sends to Tajikistan assistance of 57 million somoni to combat COVID-19,” June 19, 2020, https://asiaplustj.info/ru/news/tajikistan/society/20200619/pravitelstvo- yaponii-predostavilo-tadzhikistanu-pomotsh-na-57-mln-somoni-dlya-borbi-s-covid-19
 ADB, “ADB approved a $ 50 million grant to support Tajikistan’s response to COVID-19,” June 18, 2020, https://www.adb.org/ru/news/adb-approves-50-million-grant -support-tajikistan-covid-19-response
 World Bank, “The World Bank supported project finances cash transfers to protect vulnerable children in Tajikistan,” June 19, 2020, https://www.vsemirnyjbank.org/en/news/press-release/2020/06/19/world- bank-supported-project-finances-cash-transfers-to-protect-vulnerable-children-in-tajikistan
 Asia-Plus, “Kuwait sends the humanitarian assistance on a special charter flight to Tajikistan”, June 11, 2020, https://asiaplustj.info/ru/news/tajikistan/society/20200611/kuveit-otpravil-spetsreisom-v-tadzhikistan -grazhdan-respubliki-i-gumpomotsh
 The US Embassy in Tajikistan, “USAID and the Aga Khan Fund Allocate $ 2.6 Million to Combat COVID-19,” June 5, 2020, https://tj.usembassy.gov/usaid-and-the- aga-khan-foundation-provide-2-6-million-in-assistance-to-combat-to-covid-19-en /
 Avaz Yuldashev, “The Mayor of Kulob was arrested. He is suspected of involvement in corruption cases”, Asia-Plus, June 8, 2020, https://asiaplustj.info/ru/news/tajikistan/laworder/20200608/arestovan-mer-kulyaba
 Avaz Yuldashev, Muso Bobohodzhiev, “Emomali Rahmon appointed a new mayor of Kulyab”, Asia-Plus, June 8, 2020, https://asiaplustj.info/ru/news/tajikistan/power/20200608/emomali-rahmon-naznachil- novogo-mera-kulyaba
 Khiromon Bakozoda, Mirzonabi Kholikzod, Hursand Khurramov, “Yodgor Fayzov – to the residents of Rushan: I will personally deal with the conflict with the security forces,” Radio Ozodi, https://rus.ozodi.org/a/30647073.html
 Abdullo Ashurov, “Coronavirus is to blame: workers of large enterprises and construction sites in Tajikistan have received no compensation for months,” Radio Ozodi, June 15, 2020, https://rus.ozodi.org/a/30671854.html
 Turkmen.news, “COVID-19. Is there a coronavirus in Turkmenistan? ”, June 29, 2020, https://turkmen.news/news/covid-19-v-turkmenistane/
 Turkmenportal, “Ambassador of the Russian Federation:“ According to official figures, there is no coronavirus in Turkmenistan, and it is evidenced ””, June 11, 2020, https://turkmenportal.com/blog/28099/posol-rf-po- oficialnym-dannym-v-turkmenistane-net-koronavirusa-i-my-po-kosvennym-priznakam-eto-vidim
 Ferghana Media, “The Foreign Ministry of Turkmenistan has accused the US Embassy of distributing fake info on the quarantine in the republic” https://fergana.agency/news/119464/?country=tm ; “Russia’s ambassador to Turkmenistan denied allegations of being bribed for loyalty ”” https://fergana.agency/news/119310/?country=tm
 Turkmen.news, “Another protest of Turkmen citizens in Istanbul”, June 26, 2020, https://turkmen.news/news/v-stambule-proshel-ocherednoj-protest-grazhdan-turkmenistana/
 Turkmen.news, “Turkmens in Cyprus protested once more against Berdymukhamedov’s policy,” June 14, 2020, https://turkmen.news/news/turkmeny-na-kipre-vnov-vyshli-na-protest-protiv- politiki-berdymuhamedova /
 Turkmen.news, “Banknotes with anti-government inscriptions appeared in Turkmenistan”, June 12, 2020, https://turkmen.news/news/anti-berdimuhamedov-protest/
 Mir24, “A new automobile bridge was opened on the border of Turkmenistan and Iran,” June 9, 2020, https://mir24.tv/news/16413165/na-granice-turkmenistana-i-irana-otkryli-novyi-avtomobilnyi-most
 Coronavirus (COVID-19), “Online coronavirus statistics for Uzbekistan today,” https://coronavirus-monitor.ru/coronavirus-v-uzbekistane/
 Website of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, “More than 1 trillion so’ms from loans will be allocated for projects in the service sector”, June 16, 2020, https://president.uz/ru/lists/view/3652
 Kun.uz, “Why is the number of new coronavirus cases increasing in Uzbekistan? Expert answer ”, June 1, 2020, https://kun.uz/ru/news/2020/06/01/pochemu-v-uzbekistane-uvelichivayetsya-kolichestvo-zarajyennyx-koronavirusom-sredi-naseleniya-otvet-eksperta
 Website of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, “More than 1 trillion so’ms from loans will be allocated for projects in the service sector”, June 16, 2020, https://president.uz/ru/lists/view/3652
 Uzreport, “Starting June 5, several businesses in Uzbekistan are allowed to reopen”, June 4, 2020, https://uzreport.news/society/s-5-iyunya-v-uzbekistane-razreshili-vozobnovit-eshe-neskolko -vidov-deyatelnosti
 Newspaper.uz, “Uzbekistan resumes international flights,” June 14, 2020, https://www.gazeta.uz/ru/2020/06/14/avia/ ; https://www.gazeta.uz/ru/2020/06/04/more-permission/
 Uzreport, “The quarantine rules in Uzbekistan extended until August 1,” June 14, 2020, https://uzreport.news/society/v-uzbekistane-rejim-karantina-prodlen-do-1-avgusta
 Sputnik, “Checkpoints will be established at the entrances to the red zones in Tashkent,” June 22, 2020, https://uz.sputniknews.ru/society/20200622/14390224/Na-vezdakh-v-krasnye-zony-Tashkenta-ustanovyat- blokposty.html
 ADB, “ADB to provide $ 500 million to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on the economy and health of the population of Uzbekistan,” June 25, 2020, https://www.adb.org/ru/news/adb-provides- 500-million-loan-mitigate-health-and-economic-impacts-covid-19-uzbekistan
 US Embassy in Uzbekistan, “The United States Supports Uzbekistan’s Efforts to Combat COVID-19,” June 8, 2020, https://uz.usembassy.gov/ru/the-united-states-supports-uzbekistans-efforts- to-combat-covid-19-en /
 MIVT RUz, “Uzbekistan submits a formal application for obtaining the status of a beneficiary in the EU’s GSP + preference scheme”, June 12, 2020, https://mift.uz/ru/news/uzbekistan-napravil-ofitsialnuju-zajavku- na-poluchenie-statusa-strany-benefitsiara-sistemy-preferentsij-evrosojuza-gsp
 Sputnik, “The excise tax on the import of cars to be canceled in Uzbekistan starting August 1,” June 4, 2020, https://uz.sputniknews.ru/economy/20200604/14283501/Aktsiz-na-vvoz-legkovykh-avto-otmenyat -v-Uzbekistane-s-1-avgusta.htm
 Negmat Giyasov, “The President of Uzbekistan instructed to cancel the excise tax on the import of cars,” June 4, 2020, http://asiatv.kg/2020/06/04/%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B5%D0 % B7% D0% B8% D0% B4% D0% B5% D0% BD% D1% 82-% D1% 83% D0% B7% D0% B1% D0% B5% D0% BA% D0% B8% D1% 81% D1% 82% D0% B0% D0% BD% D0% B0-% D0% BF% D0% BE% D1% 80% D1% 83% D1% 87% D0% B8% D0% BB-% D0% BE% D1% 82% D0% BC% D0% B5% D0% BD /
 Newspaper.uz, “Feruza Makhmudova elected as the ambassador of Uzbekistan to Israel”, June 19, 2020, https://www.gazeta.uz/ru/2020/06/19/new-ambassador/
 People’s word, “On the accession of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the Protocol prohibiting the use of asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare (Geneva, June 17, 1925)”, June 27, 2020, http://xs.uz/ en / post / o-prisoedinenii-respubliki-uzbekistan-k-protokolu-o-zapreschenii-primeneniya-na-vojne-udushayuschikh-yadovitykh-ili-drugikh-podobnykh-gazov-i-bakteriologicheskikh-sredun-zvsty 1925-goda
 Nuz.uz, “Uzbekistan acceded to the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons”, June 27, 2020, https://nuz.uz/politika/1157806-uzbekistan-prisoedinilsya-k-konvenczii-o-zaprete-himicheskogo-oruzhiya. html
 Kyrgyz President Website, “Amended – Two persons in the President Sooronbay Jeenbekov’s delegation to Moscow tested positive for the coronavirus,” June 24, 2020, http://www.president.kg/ru/sobytiya/16959_dopolneno__v_soprovoghdenii_prezidenta_sooronbaya_gheenbekova_v_g__moskva_u_dvoih_chelovek_vishli_pologhitelnie_analizi_na_koronavirus
 RBC, “The President of Turkmenistan did not go to the parade in Moscow because of his birthday,” June 19, 2020, https://www.rbc.ru/rbcfreenews/5eed0ca49a7947f964901990
 The foreign ministers of Central Asian countries and the US Secretary of State discuss the coronavirus situation. http://avesta.tj/2020/07/01/glavy-mid-stran-tsentralnoj-azii-i-gossekretar-ssha-obsudili-situatsiyu-s-koronavirusom/