According to the World Health Organisation, currently over 200 candidate vaccines (56 in clinical and 166 in preclinical development) are being developed, many of which are tested in clinical trials. Some of candidate vaccines are at the 3rd stage of clinical trials – the final stage before the vaccine approval.
The most famous vaccines are Moderna, Pfizer, Sputnik V, AstraZeneka. Let’s see each in detail.
Pfizer – the first vaccine permitted in December 2020 for use by the European Union and the first one officially approved by WHO. Terms of storage: -70 degrees; upon defrost it can be used within five days. The vaccination contains two stages with the three week interval. No serious side effects have been found, according to the manufacturer. The only side effects were fatigue (3.8%) and headache (2%) of the third degree of severity with frequency over 2 per cent.
It is manufactured in two countries: Germany and Belgium. Volumes of production: 2 billion doses in 2021.
The cost of a dose of Pfizer vaccine for the United States is 19.5 dollars or 39 dollars for the administration of two components.
Pfizer was offered to Kyrgyzstan, but the ministry of health found it unreasonable to supply it. The country does not have required refrigerating equipment to provide -70 degrees storage, which will require about 2 million dollars.
Moderna – American vaccine with 94.5 per cent efficiency. The vaccine is injected in two stages with four weeks interval. It can be stored up to 30 days at a temperature +2 to +8 degrees. This year, Moderna isplanning to produce 600 million doses.
The vaccine is permitted for use in the United States, Canada, Israel, United Kingdom and Switzerland.
Sputnik V – a vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Russian Centre jointly with the ministry of defence of Russia. The efficiency of the vaccine is 92 per cent.
The vaccine in injected intramuscularly in two stages with 21-28 day interval.
The cost of the vaccine for international markets will be under 10 dollars per dose from February 2021 or less than 20 dollars for two doses required for the vaccination.
AstraZeneca – a vector vaccine developed in the United Kingdom, uses genetically modified adenovirus of a chimpanzee. The vaccine is stable under the domestic refrigerator temperature and costs 3 to 4 dollars per dose. The vaccine should be administered in 2 stages and is approved by the United Kingdom and European Commission.
By the end of 2020, the company is going to produce about 200 million doses.