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Problems of Ensuring the National Security of Kyrgyzstan amidst the Current Crisis

«The current epidemiological situation in Kyrgyzstan associated with the outbreak of coronavirus exposed numerous problems in terms of ensuring national security, among which the most acute are the problems of ensuring uninterrupted food supplies, socio-economic stability and public health», – mentioned political analyst Arsen Usenov, in an article written specifically for CABAR.asia.


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Currently, the most pressing issues in the country are the protection of society and the state from internal and external threats, among which the most acute are the problems of ensuring uninterrupted food supplies, socio-economic stability and public health. The situation is aggravated by the dependence of Kyrgyzstan on foreign imports and the presence of conflicts with neighboring states on issues of border delimitation, problems of unhindered transport of goods through neighboring countries, and a conflict between the government and the population over the Chinese presence.

Given the possible drastic consequences for the macroeconomic situation of Kyrgyzstan of the above threats, the low financial ability and political legitimacy of the state, its current condition can be characterized as the beginning of a multi-crisis, the way out of which in the near future will determine the strategic course of the government.

Coronavirus situation in Kyrgyzstan

Despite the proximity to the epicenter of the pandemic, Kyrgyzstan has long remained among the countries, that were not affected by the virus. The first people infected with coronavirus were discovered on March 18. Most of them arrived from a small hajj (Umrah) from Saudi Arabia. Later, people were discovered who arrived from India and Pakistan, where they stayed in order to carry out missionary work. Over the past few weeks, there has been an increase in the number of people who have been in contact with infected patients. As of April 20, the number of people infected with coronavirus in Kyrgyzstan reached 568 people, 7 people died .

 

For a month, Kyrgyzstan became one of the countries with a high infection rate for doctors. Thus, according to the latest data, of all detected cases, 24% (140 people) are medical personnel.

A few days after the discovery of the first cases of coronavirus in Kyrgyzstan in focal areas, and then throughout the country, an emergency situation was introduced. Subsequently, taking into account the detection of new virus infected, a state of emergency was introduced in the cities of Bishkek, Osh, Jalal-Abad and Suzak district of the Jalal-Abad region, Nookat and Kara-Suu regions of Osh region from March 25 to April 15.[1] Later, the state of emergency in these regions was extended until April 30. In addition, a state of emergency was also introduced in the city of Naryn and At-Bashinsky district of the Naryn region due to the sharp increase in patients with COVID-19.[2] The greatest distribution of coronavirus was found in Osh Oblast (147 cases).

 

For several weeks, the state border of Kyrgyzstan has been closed for foreign citizens. Measures are being taken to reduce contacts, home quarantine is recommended, and curfews have been introduced in the areas of emergency.

Problem number 1. Food crisis

The report of the World Food Program notes that Kyrgyzstan’s high dependence on imports of basic food products, in particular wheat, continues to negatively affect the most vulnerable households, which are forced to spend more than half of their income on food expenses.[3]

The situation on the food market has sharply worsened amid a general transition to the quarantine regime and the introduction of emergency situation and state of emergency in Kyrgyzstan. In the early days of the emergency situation, prices for essential goods increased throughout the country, and state agencies on combating monopoly and economic crime were involved in regulating them.

President of Kyrgyzstan Sooronbay Jeenbekov at a meeting with representatives of the Bishkek City Hall to provide assistance to socially vulnerable groups during the  state of emergency. Photo: president.kg

The food security of Kyrgyzstan is directly related to the situation on the adjacent Kyrgyz-Kazakh border and the conditions of transportation and control accepted by the neighboring state, since most essential food products are imported to Kyrgyzstan from Kazakhstan and Russia. Kazakhstan has already made a decision on restrictions on the export of food from its territory and closed the border with neighboring states. In the case of a prolonged continuation of the protection regime in Kazakhstan, the situation in the food market of Kyrgyzstan will only worsen. The most important commodity imported from Kazakhstan remains flour, for the export of which the Kazakh authorities imposed a restriction on Kyrgyzstan – no more than 30 thousand tons per month. Amid possible restrictions on the export of Russian wheat, the Kyrgyz government agreed on additional deliveries of 100 thousand tons of wheat from Russia.[4]

Meanwhile, prices for flour, butter, sugar and other imported products have already risen in the country. According to the Committee on National Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic, in January-March 2020 (compared with December last year), consumer prices and tariffs in the country as a whole increased by 2.7 percent, due to an increase in prices for food products and soft drinks (by 5, 2 percent), alcoholic beverages and tobacco products (5.1 percent). Most of all, price increases were observed in Bishkek – 3.5%.[5] The government is taking measures to set the maximum allowable food prices, and measures are being taken to prevent artificial price increases. Nevertheless, the state is not able to guarantee the ability to further control prices in the food market yet, since pricing in the country is also dependent on the appreciation of the US dollar.

Problem number 2. Economic crisis

An economic and social crisis is brewing in Kyrgyzstan. This is facilitated by the appreciation of the US dollar, which over the past month has risen by 15% (from 69.8 to 80 KGS). In comparison with other CIS countries, the use of American currency remains extremely high even in civil commodity-money relations in Kyrgyzstan.

No less acute is the spasmodic exchange rate of the Russian ruble against the KGS, which in March fell to the level of 0.85 KGS and recovered only after the decline in the level of KGS against the US dollar. For several years, the exchange rate of 1 Russian ruble remains almost equal to 1 KGS. The ruble exchange rate is important for the category of external migrants of Kyrgyzstan working in Russia. The number of external labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia is over 600 thousand citizens (24% of the working-age population).

Migrants are the main source of stabilization of the domestic economic and social situation in the country, since they serve as a source of income for Kyrgyz citizens. Experts say that Kyrgyzstanis are becoming poorer and more dependent on migration. So, at the end of 2017, 25.6% of the country’s population were classified as poor.[6] Migration, in fact, saves poverty statistics. “Without money from relatives, not 25.6%, but already 34% of the population of Kyrgyzstan would be in need,” the report of the Committee on National Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic[7] notes. 

Remittances from neighboring countries play enormous role in the country’s economy. Thus, according to the data for 2018, migrants from Russia transferred to Kyrgyzstan over 2.6 billion US dollars.[8] For greater clarity of the dependence of the republic on external migration is worth noting,  that the GDP of Kyrgyzstan is only 8 billion US dollars.

During the outbreak of coronavirus in Russia, several thousand citizens of Kyrgyzstan began to return to their homeland. The circumstances of their return were the temporary closure of jobs, educational institutions due to quarantine, as well as periodic, seasonal returns of migrants. According to the Kyrgyz Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as of March 30, about 3,800 citizens who wish to return to their homeland remain abroad.[9] Meanwhile, a possible scenario of unemployment, job cuts for Kyrgyz migrants and their partial return will reduce the financial, socio-economic situation of Kyrgyz citizens who are dependent on migration.

The reduction of the purchasing power of the population is also facilitated by the introduction of a state of emergency in Bishkek and the closure of a large number of enterprises, and the suspension of a wide range of services across the country. Thus, citizens engaged in private business turned out to be financially vulnerable. Bishkek alone provides 40% of the total production of goods and services in the country. At the same time, Kyrgyzstan remains predominantly an agrarian country, the mining industry is mainly developed by foreign corporations. In addition, a large share in the economy (53%) is held by trade and the service sector.[10]

The low level of domestic production and the diversification of exports were due to the fact that Kyrgyzstan was unable to withstand the influx of goods from foreign markets, which led to its permanent dependence on imports and generally confirms the external dependence of the republic. Thus, for example, in 2019, the volume of foreign trade turnover of Kyrgyzstan amounted to 7.12 billion US dollars, of which 74% (5.3 billion) accounted for the import of goods. The negative trade balance of Kyrgyzstan amounted to $ 3.45 billion. Of the 5.3 billion imports, 4.9 billion account for agricultural imports.[11] The main countries where Kyrgyzstan imports goods from are China, Russia and Kazakhstan. So, the share of imports in the Kyrgyz trade turnover with these countries in 2019 amounted to: with China – 94.5%, with Russia – 83.5%, with Kazakhstan – 64.4%.[12]

According to preliminary data of the Committee on National Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic, the foreign trade turnover of the Kyrgyz Republic in January-February 2020 amounted to 931 million US dollars and decreased by 1.5 percent compared to January-February 2019, while export deliveries increased by 20.3 percent, and import receipts, by contrast, decreased by 9.7 percent.[13]

The high import dependence of the economy of Kyrgyzstan, as well as the prevalence of income from external migration and the service sector in the face of restrictions during emergency situation, will directly affect the reduction in the level of socio-economic situation of the population. The fact that the country is on the verge of a serious socio-economic crisis was also recognized by the head of government M. Abylgaziev, who nevertheless states that despite the crisis all social obligations of the state will be fulfilled.[14]

There has not been such a large budget deficit since 1995.

Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan’s seasonal tourism business is in jeopardy. According to the statement of the Minister of Tourism A. Zhamankulov, the flow of tourists in 2020 will decrease by 80%.[15] The forecast of the state budget is also not optimistic, which, as noted by Vice Prime Minister E. Asrandiev, will miss 400 million US dollars this year[16] (32 billion KGS). There has not been such a large budget deficit since 1995.[17] For comparison, the country’s budget revenue is only about 160 billion KGS (2 billion US dollars). In general, according to forecasts of the Minister of Economy of Kyrgyzstan, a decrease in economic indicators of 6.8% is coming up in the country.[18]

According to IMF forecasts, following the results of 2020, the decline in Kyrgyzstan’s GDP will be – 4%, which is the lowest in Central Asia.[19]
Infographics. IMF forecast for GDP of Central Asian countries in 2020

Problem number 3. Financial Crisis and External Credit Risks

The onset of the COVID-19 epidemic in Kyrgyzstan exposed the problem of insufficient funding for the healthcare sector, which resulted in a shortage of protective clothing for medical personnel and personal protective equipment (masks, gloves, antiseptics) for the population, which is one of the probable reasons for the high level of infections among medical personnel .

The number of artificial lung ventilation apparatus (ALV) in case of a massive increase in the scale of the epidemic was also insufficient. There were not enough funds in the budget to support such an important area. In addition, the authorities were worried about the large budget deficit due to a halt in business activity in the country.

Under these conditions, Kyrgyzstan received humanitarian aid from USAID in the amount of 66 million KGS (825 thousand US dollars), the German Society for International Cooperation GIZ in the amount of 500 thousand US dollars, the Asian Development Bank – 200 thousand US dollars in the form of emergency assistance and 2 million US dollars in the form of additional support, as well as other international donors and countries.

Over the past month, Kyrgyzstan received humanitarian and technical assistance from Russia, Japan, Belarus, China, Turkey, South Korea, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Poland and other countries. A fund to fight against coronavirus has been created in Kyrgyzstan, which as of April 17 had collected 128 million KGS (1.6 million US dollars).[20] 

Meanwhile, the state budget deficit forced the country’s leadership to seek external financial assistance from external donors. The head of state appealed to the IMF, the World Bank, ADB and the European Union, the EBRD, the Islamic Development Bank and other donors to support the healthcare sector in combating COVID-19 and overcoming the effects of the virus .

As of April 17, 2020, Kyrgyzstan has already allocated and is considering funding by the following donors:

Thus, the amount of agreed assistance requested by Kyrgyzstan amounted to about 456 million US dollars. Given the total amount of assistance requested (about 900 million US dollars), the external debt of Kyrgyzstan should grow by about 25%.

An increase in debt will in turn have certain consequences for Kyrgyzstan. This is facilitated by the fact that international financial organizations, in case of Kyrgyzstan’s inability to fulfill its obligations, will have leverage over the authorities. As a result, the country is being prevented from pursuing its own deficit budget policy. It is a very big risk, given the past negative experience of Kyrgyzstan with international financial organizations. So, in 2004, the IMF recommended Kyrgyzstan to join the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) – a program for countries burdened with high external debts.

The republic’s entry into this program meant the actual transfer of management of the economy (taxes, state shares in enterprises, development of deposits, etc.) to international financial organizations (IFOs).

Thus, practice shows that financial injections of external actors can be motivated by political interests. Nevertheless, Kyrgyzstan – as a country dependent on external finances – today is not able to implement a sovereign anti-crisis policy in full, since the republic’s economy is highly dependent on China, Russia, Kazakhstan, as well as on financing from IFOs.

Problem number 4. Political crisis

A coronavirus outbreak has suspended the “political” season in Kyrgyzstan. In the spring, the country usually has the largest number of political events and protests. The government took measures to postpone the elections to local keneshes, which were to be held April 12; the question is the possible postponement of the parliamentary elections scheduled for October 4, 2020.

Meanwhile, political silence was destructed by information about a possible change in the form of government. Parliamentary deputy K. Zulushev initiated a bill on holding a referendum in conjunction with parliamentary elections, which will determine the question of the preferred form of government between parliamentary and presidential. Many considered the deputy’s initiative as an attempt by the authorities to take advantage of the situation, but there are also opinions that support a change in the form of government. Nevertheless, among the population this initiative was taken critically, which is facilitated by the low level of legitimacy of the authorities, which, as practice has shown, was not ready to respond to emergency situations. The fall in the image of the authorities was preceded by numerous rallies and discontent over corruption scandals, border security and Chinese investment:

  • In 2019, a journalistic investigation of Azattyk, Kloop, and OCCRP organizations about the smuggling of goods from China and the laundering of multi-million-dollar money caused a stir in the country. The scandalous investigation involved R. Matraimov, former deputy head of the republic’s customs, and a Chinese businessman Kh. Abdykadyr, who is familiar with the former and current leadership of the country.
  • Authorities demonstrate inability to resolve the issue of delimitation and demarcation of borders. Meanwhile, several border armed conflicts occurred on the border between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
  • Due to massive protests against Chinese investments, the government had to cancel the construction of a trade and logistics center in the Naryn region near the Kyrgyz Chinese border, which was sponsored by a private Kyrgyz Chinese company.

These and other legitimate factors in the wake of the crisis create unfavorable conditions and political risks for putting forward bold initiatives and even taking full responsibility for decisions made. Today, the ability of the state to withstand or mitigate the effects of the crisis will determine overall political stability in the medium term.

What measures are taken by the government?

The government is taking a number of economic and fiscal indulgences for business and the public. So, over the past month, Kyrgyzstan has taken measures to defer tax deductions, tax sanctions and penalties for late payment of taxes have been temporarily lifted, a moratorium has been introduced on checking business entities. The government also recommended that private enterprises provide their workers with minimum incomes as far as possible, during the period of forced unemployment.[21]

In the sphere of supporting the social sphere, the government canceled the imposition of fines and penalties for utility payments, Internet providers were advised not to turn off Internet services for the presence of debts. The government pledged to pay an additional 46 thousand KGS ($ 540) to the basic salary for medical workers involved in the identification and treatment of patients with coronavirus. In addition, the government decided to provide compensation to doctors in case of infection with coronavirus or death from the effects of the virus.

So, medical workers who become infected with coronavirus during their work in risk areas are paid compensation in the amount of 200 thousand KGS (approximately 2,500 US dollars), and in the event of death from coronavirus, the family of a doctor is paid 1 million KGS (approximately 12,500 US dollars).

In the field of finance, the government has taken measures to amnesty loan commitments, primarily taken in US dollars. Commercial banks deferred the payment of loans to all individuals and legal entities temporarily left without income for three months.

In order to regulate food and medicine prices, fines have been increased for unreasonably raising prices for food and medicine. Also, to increase the responsibility of citizens during the emergency situation and a state of emergency, the state introduced changes to tighten liability for a number of rules that apply during the coronavirus period. Violators of order awaits liability from a fine to a real criminal bid from 2.5 to 5 years. The government daily introduces new rules and regulations in order to control the number of diseases and prevent contact between the population; Areas where the state of emergency exists, are going through disinfection of streets and public places.

Thus, measures taken by the state to a greater extent are valid in the field of health control and law and order, that is, where employees of budgetary organizations are involved.

The government was entrusted with the task of developing an anti-crisis plan, the first results of which turned out to be more focused on the sphere of budgetary organizations and least on supporting business entities.

EAEU factor

In the framework of the EAEU, the parties decided to ban and restrict the export of food products, personal protective equipment and medicines. The heads of state also agreed on a “green channel” for essential goods, primarily medicines and protective equipment. Thus, the EAEU decided to turn back to zero the customs rates when importing the above types of goods. Despite a statement of mutual support, countries have restricted the export of food products even within the Union (restrictions on the export of wheat and flour from Russia and Kazakhstan). Nevertheless, at the highest level, it was decided that in the event of a food crisis, the parties will provide humanitarian assistance to each other.

According to expert estimates, the integration processes in the EAEU in the crisis will be slowed down and at the same time will be tested for strength. So, Kyrgyzstan has already questioned about the efficiency of the Eurasian Development Bank and the Eurasian Fund for Stabilization and Development. Speaking at a conference meeting of the Supreme Eurasian Council, President of Kyrgyzstan Sooronbay Jeenbekov focused on the need to reform these structures by reducing the time for considering loans for budget support in crisis situations, and to increase the share of grant financing. Sooronbay Jeenbekov also touched on the issue of restrictions on trade within the EAEU, noting that “the EAEU single market should function without barriers, restrictions and exemptions. The introduction of restrictions on the export or import of goods is justified only in relation to third countries ”.[22] 

Currently, the EDB and EBRD are not listed as potential donors of financial assistance for Kyrgyzstan.

World experience in countering the coronavirus crisis

As the effects of the coronavirus COVID-19 are spreading all over the world, even economically strong countries are at risk of their inevitable negative impact. Other countries are also taking measures to protect the food market and mitigate the economic consequences of the pandemic within their territories. Scientists from the International Center for Cooperation at New York University are already predicting the onset of the global food crisis.[23]

The thing is that countries are taking protectionist measures aimed at restricting or completely banning the export of food products of their own production. So, Kazakhstan suspended the export of wheat, flour, buckwheat, vegetables; Serbia has limited the supply of sunflower oil and other food products. Meanwhile, the Russian Ministry of Agriculture proposed to temporarily limit grain exports.

At the same time, the largest importers of grain, such as China, Turkey, Algeria, increase purchases and reserves of rice and wheat, and in order to reduce the cost of their income, they actively reduce import duties.

However, the main attention in the countries of the world is focused on overcoming the negative social and economic consequences of the crisis. So, according to the plan of the Russian government to overcome the crisis, a fund in the amount of 300 billion rubles is being created in the country, tax holidays for businesses and paid sick leave for people in quarantine are being introduced.[24] The Moscow city government pledged to pay 19.5 thousand rubles to all unemployed under quarantine.[25]

Similar measures are being introduced in Western countries. According to TASS, the Council of the European Union has agreed to allocate € 37 billion as part of measures to protect the economies of the block from the influence of the coronavirus. From the bottom, € 8 billion will be distributed between enterprises and companies that will suffer large losses due to the pandemic. The UK Treasury has announced business support measures. In particular, companies will be provided with loan guarantees of £ 330 billion ($ 400 billion), which is 15% of the country’s GDP. The maximum loan amount will be increased from £ 1.2 million to £ 5 million (from $ 1.5 to $ 6 million), while interest rates will not be paid during the first six months.

US President D. Trump signed a decree on the allocation of $ 100 billion to support victims of coronavirus. The funds will be used to pay unemployment benefits, sick leave and sick people with coronavirus, free virus testing, and medical insurance coverage.[26]  Also, in the United States, business companies receive loans in the form of a budget for the payment of salaries for two and a half months. Moreover, if the employer reduces the salary fund by no more than 25%, then banks forgive 80% of the loan.[27]

In Germany, Minister of Economics and Energy Peter Altmaier said the government will not “leave in danger” for medium-sized businesses involved in the exhibition and restaurant business, which are expected to suffer the most severe losses. Among other things, he promised to use credit instruments to help the affected companies provided by the German Development Bank KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau). The German parliament also discusses the mitigation of the requirements for receiving part-time benefits to citizens who are unable to do work in connection with the outbreak of coronavirus.[28]

In some countries, financial support measures are in place. So, in Kazakhstan, citizens affected by the effects of quarantine are given 42.5 thousand tenge ($ 100), in Japan this amount is $ 1000, in Hong Kong – $ 1300, in Singapore – $ 400. In the United States, the head of the Treasury, Stephen Mnuchin, offered to pay, regardless of income, $ 1,200 to every adult American and $ 500 to every child.

In China, the first to face the consequences of coronavirus, the government decided to issue $ 2 billion worth of bonds, the proceeds of which will be used to combat the spread of the virus. Authorities will increase spending, tax breaks and subsidies in sectors affected by the spread of the virus. These are the areas of retail, catering, logistics, transport and tourism. At the same time, Beijing expects to exit with a minimum increase in the budget deficit from 2.7 to 3%, and a decrease in economic growth is planned at 6%.[29] Nevertheless, IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva expressed confidence that the PRC economy can survive despite the coronavirus crisis.[30]

Recommendations

The circumstances in which all countries of the world find themselves and subsequent consequences of a protectionist nature definitely pose a threat to the national security of Kyrgyzstan. The crisis caused by the outbreak of coronavirus in the world in the near future will directly affect such areas of national security of Kyrgyzstan as food security, socio-economic and political stability. The most vulnerable will be private companies, as well as self-employed citizens.

In order to protect national security, the state authorities of the country need to protect the most from the food and socio-economic crisis those segments of the population who lost their income after the suspension of many areas of activity. In Kyrgyzstan, self-employment, small and medium-sized enterprises predominate. The consequences of income deprivation for this segment of the population that does not have state support may result in subsequent intensification of social tension in society, increasing political conflicts, increasing criminal situations, increasing poverty, deteriorating health and quality of life of the population against the backdrop of the food crisis.

Therefore, in the state of recession, and considering the characteristics of the national economy and international experience, it is necessary:

  • In order to minimize damage and preserve business entities, take the maximum possible measures to postpone and mitigate the monetary, economic, tax policy in relation to business.
  • in order to support persons temporarily unemployed due to the consequences of the coronavirus, to appoint unemployment benefits with a minimum subsistence level; Simplify and digitalize the process of issuing benefits; defer payment of mandatory state, utility payments and credit obligations.
  • in order to support the poor, organize mobile food, social and medical support groups in each village of the country.

The above-mentioned measures are approximate and most necessary in the present conditions. Of course, the implementation of even minimal measures in the sphere of crisis management will require heavy loads on the state budget, which was clearly not prepared for emergencies and crises. In such circumstances, it becomes clear why the Kyrgyz authorities have to seek help from external donors. And this, as noted earlier, carries potential risks for the political powers of the authorities, which is again disadvantageous for national security. Thus, in the current conditions, the government, although unwilling, is forced to take measures with long-term consequences to solve the short-term problem.


This material has been prepared as part of the Giving Voice, Driving Change – from the Borderland to the Steppes Project project. The opinions expressed in the article do not reflect the position of the editorial board or donor.


[1] The state of emergency is introduced in the regions and cities of Kyrgyzstan with coronavirus (03.24.2020) // URL: https://kloop.kg/blog/2020/03/24/srochno-v-rajonah-i-gorodah-kyrgyzstana- s-koronavirusom-vvoditsya-rezhim-chp /

[2] The state of emergency is introduced in the city of Naryn and At-Bashinsky district (04/14/2020) // URL: https://ru.sputnik.kg/society/20200414/1047858455/narynskaya-oblast-rezhim-chp-koronavirus.html

[3] WFP Kyrgyz Republic Country Brief April 2019 // URL: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/2019%2004%20Kyrgyz%20Republic%20Country%20Brief%20April.pdf

[4] Kazakhstan set a strict quota for the export of flour to Kyrgyzstan (04/07/2020) // URL: https://regnum.ru/news/economy/2908818.html

[5] In March, there was a significant slowdown in economic growth. GDP growth in the I quarter of this year amounted to 1.5% (04/10/2020) // URL: http://stat.kg/ru/news/v-marte-nablyudalos-sushestvennoe-zamedlenie-tempov-ekonomicheskogo-rosta-rost-vvp-vi-kvartale- tg-sostavil-15 /

[6] National Statistical Office: Kyrgyzstanis are becoming poorer and more dependent on migrants (06/22/2018) // URL: https://rus.azattyk.org/a/kyrgyzstan-poverty-stat/29313225.html

[7] National Statistical Office: Kyrgyzstanis are becoming poorer and more dependent on migrants (06/22/2018) // URL: https://rus.azattyk.org/a/kyrgyzstan-poverty-stat/29313225.html

[8] In 2018, migrants transferred $ 2.6 billion to Kyrgyzstan (02.16.2019) // URL: https://24.kg/ekonomika/109379_v2018_godu_migrantyi_pereveli_vkyirgyizizstan_26_milliarda/

[9] Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry: About 3,800 Kyrgyz citizens abroad wish to return to their homeland (03/30/2020) // URL: http://kabar.kg/news/mid-kr-okolo-3-tys-800- grazhdan-kyrgyzstan-za-rubezhom-zhelaiut-vernut-sia-na-rodinu /

[10] The service industry – the unrealized investment potential of Kyrgyzstan (11/12/2019) // URL: https://kaktus.media/doc/400930_indystriia_yslyg_nerealizovannyy_investicionnyy_potencialkyrgyzstana.html

[11] Foreign Trade of the Kyrgyz Republic: Data of the National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic // URL: http://stat.kg/ru/opendata/category/2/   

[12]  Foreign Trade of the Kyrgyz Republic: Data of the National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic // URL: http://stat.kg/ru/opendata/category/2/

[13] In March, there was a significant slowdown in economic growth. GDP growth in the I quarter of this year amounted to 1.5% (04/10/2020) // URL: http://stat.kg/ru/news/v-marte-nablyudalos-sushestvennoe-zamedlenie-tempov-ekonomicheskogo-rosta-rost-vvp-vi-kvartale- tg-sostavil-15 /

[14] The government was criticized for its slowness during the crisis (03/26/2020) // URL: https://rus.azattyk.org/a/covid-19_v_kyrgyzstane_borba_s_krizisom/30510255.html

[15] Zhamankulov: Tourism in Kyrgyzstan in 2020 will fall by 80% (04/03/2020) // URL: https://rus.azattyk.org/a/30522111.html

[16] Asrandiyev told Jeenbekov that the budget is missing $ 400 million (03/28/2020) // URL: https://ru.sputnik.kg/economy/20200328/1047608141/kyrgyzstan-asrandiev-zhehehnbekov-byudzhet-vypadenie.html

[17] The Kyrgyz economy expects the worst year for the last 25 years (04/15/2020) // URL: https://rus.azattyk.org/a/30555728.html  

[18] According to forecasts, we will go negative by 6.8%, – Minister S. Mukanbetov on the economy of Kyrgyzstan (04/01/2020) // URL: https: // www. tazabek.kg/news:1607539?f=c p

[19] World Economic Outlook, April 2020: The Great Lockdown. IMF Report. April 2020 // URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/04/14/World-Economic-Outlook-April-2020-The-Great-Lockdown-49306

[20]  Kyrgyzstan will receive $ 456 million from financial institutions (04.17.2020) // URL:  https://kaktus.media/doc/411113_kyrgyzstan_polychit_456_mln_ot_finansovyh_institytov.html

[21] The Government approved a plan to provide fiscal measures to support entrepreneurship (03/31/2020) // URL: https://www.gov.kg/ru/post/s/pravitelstvo-utverdilo-plan-po-okazaniyu-fiskalnykh-mer -podderzhki-predprinimatelstva

[22] Jeenbekov – members of the Supreme Eurasian Council: Restrictions should not turn into economic isolation within our Union (04/14/2020) // URL: https://www.kp.kg/daily/27116/4197886/

[23] Scientists predicted a global food crisis due to coronavirus (04/05/2020) // URL: https://www.kp.ru/online/news/3823521/

[24] The government has prepared a plan to support the economy because of coronavirus (03/15/2020) // URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2020/03/15/825250-plan-zaschiti

[25] Regardless of age: in Moscow they introduce a regime of self-isolation for all residents (03/29/2020) // URL: https://russian.rt.com/russia/article/733013-moskva-samoizolyaciya-sobyanin

[26] What measures were introduced in different countries to support the economy in connection with the coronavirus (03/26/2020) // URL: https://tass.ru/info/8088363

[27] How the US government supports my company during quarantine (04/08/2020) // URL: https://vc.ru/life/118857-kak-pravitelstvo-ssha-podderzhivaet-moyu-kompaniyu-vo-vremya-karantina

[28] In Berlin, they are preparing measures to protect the economy of Germany from recession due to coronavirus // URL: https://www.dw.com/en/in- Berlin- they will prepare measures to protect the economy of Germany -recession due to coronavirus / a-52686343

[29] Reuters learned about the anti-crisis plan of the Chinese authorities because of the coronavirus (02/04/2020) // URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/news/2020/02/04/822193-reuters-uznal-o -antikrizisnom-plane-kitaya  

[30] They believed in the stability of the Chinese economy, despite the coronavirus (02/04/2020) // URL: https://www.rosbalt.ru/business/2020/02/04/1826097.html

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